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Understanding of the Internet of Things and Implementation of IoT

Understanding of the Internet of Things and Implementation of IoT

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)

Internet of things (IoT) is an idea where all objects in the real world can communicate with each other as part of an integrated system using the internet network as a link.

For example, CCTV installed along the road is connected to an internet connection and put together in a control room which may be tens of kilometers away or a smart home that can be managed via a smartphone with the help of an internet connection.

Basically, the IoT device consists of a sensor as a data collection medium, an internet connection as a communication media, and a server as a collector of information received by the sensor and for analysis.

The IoT was first presented by Ashton in 1999, following a quote of his statement. In June 2009 Ashton commented.
"Today computers and humans, almost completely dependent on the Internet for all information which all consist of about 50 petabytes (one petabyte is 1,024 terabytes) of data available on the Internet and was first conceived and created by humans. From starting typing, pressing the record button, taking digital pictures or scanning a bar code.
Conventional diagrams from the Internet leave the router the most important part of it all. The problem is people have limited time, attention and accuracy. They all mean not very good at capturing various data about things in the real world. And that is a big problem.
From a physical point of view and so is our environment. Ideas and information are important, but many things are important. But current information technology is very dependent on data coming from people so that our computers know more about all of these ideas.
If we have a computer that knows so much about all those things. Using data gathered without the need for help from us. We can track and count everything and greatly reduce waste, losses and costs. We will know when it is needed to replace, repair or remember, and whether they are up to date or pass the best here and yes !.
The Internet of Things has the potential to change the world as the Internet did, maybe even better. (Ashton, 2009) [2]
Research on the Internet of Things is still in the development stage. Therefore, there is no standard definition of the Internet of Things. [1] There are also various definitions formulated by different researchers listed in the survey. "
Juni 2009, Ashton

The working principle of the Internet of Things

The basic working principle of the IoT device is, objects in the real world are given a unique identity and can be recognized in a computer system and can be represented in the form of data in a computer system.

Data collected by this IoT device will be sent through the internet network and LAN to the server for the purpose of analysis and determine the output or the right decision according to the data that has been collected.

In the past, IoT only used Barcodes

In the early implementation of the idea of ​​an identifier IoT that is used so that objects can be identified and read by a computer is to use a barcode (QR Code) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID).

Now IoT uses the Internet and is smarter

In its development, an object can be given an identifier in the form of an IP address and use the internet to be able to communicate with other objects that have an IP address identifier.

IoT Works in Large Scale

How the Internet of Things Works is to take advantage of a programming argument in which each of its argument commands produces an interaction between machines that are automatically connected without human intervention and at any distance.

The Internet Becomes an IoT Communication Channel

The internet is the link between the two machine interactions, while humans only serve as direct regulators and supervisors of the operation of the tool.

IoT device (Embedded device)

any item can be called an IoT Device if an IoT module / embedded device is installed, the IoT Module generally consists of 4 important components including:


The sensor functions as a receiver/collector of information about what you want to be monitored, for example, a temperature sensor to get temperature information, camera, microphone, etc.

CPU / computer

Computers these days don't have to be a laptop or tower. specifically for making IoT devices, there are small computer devices or often called single-board computers such as Raspberry Pi or Arduino.

This small computer device is programmed to process information from the installed sensor and determine actions based on information obtained from the sensor.

The CPU also serves as a data processor which will later be sent to other devices for processing.

Operating system

Embedded devices for IoT devices require special operating systems because IoT devices are small/portable and have minimal specifications.

This operating system is the life of the device/module / embedded device / IoT device / IoT Module.

Communication lines

After the sensor collects information and the CPU processes and determines actions based on the information received, the IoT device requires a communication channel to send the data that has been processed to the user or even to the central server. communication media here can be in the form of Bluetooth, wifi, and to send information from distant places without restrictions on space and time, the IoT device will use Internet media.


The output here is an action from a program installed on the CPU such as sending information to the central server if it meets certain conditions, or moving the motor, turning on the lights, sounding the alarm, displaying data on the screen, etc.

IoT Implementation

Machines are made to make human work easier, initially, machines were only made to help humans and were operated manually.

Gradually the machine can run alone (automatic), but in its development, the use of the machine as a tool in a system will encounter obstacles when it comes to distance and time.

With such a long distance the machine will not be able to interact with other machines, to overcome this the idea of ​​the internet of things is applied, all machines with IP address identifiers can use the internet as a media of communication (exchanging data).

IoT Implementation in the Field of Security

In this sophisticated era, almost all devices installed in a complex infrastructure use the help of IoT devices to regulate the performance of existing systems.

For example, we often see that there are lots of cameras on the streets while the control room of the device is somewhere, in a scenario like this to connect the control room and the camera requires an internet network.

Devices in the control room and the camera itself use IP addresses as unique identifiers so that devices can exchange information.

IoT Implementation in the Field of Property

In a skyscraper, there are certainly many devices that are controlled by computers such as escalators, building cooling systems, security systems, CCTV, administrative systems, electricity, electricity, and gas line installations, and so forth.

To get information and monitor the various systems installed in the building, there will definitely be a lot of sensors built with certain functions.

It is from these sensors that will later collect data and send it to a computer for processing and processing into integrated information about the condition of the building.

This building server can later be accessed from anywhere with the help of an internet connection. so a real estate company can monitor all of its assets from a computer screen with the help of an internet connection.

This is only a small example of the implementation of IoT. When the house has been installed an integrated security system and controller and sensors for electricity, etc., and the condition of the house can be accessed and managed via a computer or smartphone, it can be said that the house has become part of the internet of things.

Implementation of IoT in the Medical field

Using RFID and NFC tags installed on medical devices simplifies the management and maintenance of the device.

Enough with the scan then information about the device appears, the installation of heart rate sensors and other sensors in patients who are connected to the central control room to monitor the patient's condition automatically and provide a warning if something bad happens, the hospital payment system, etc.

With the 3 examples explained above, you must have your own description, right !! in this day and age, all are using computers for operations.

IoT Implementation in the Manufacturing Industry

IoT has now become an inseparable part of the manufacturing industry, the production equipment that IoT has installed is programmed to collect data and send it to the server.

From the server, the data is processed and used as a basis for making the next steps and the performance of the conditions and results of the production machine can be monitored in real-time.

The most important thing with the installation of IoT on a production machine is that the machine can report its own condition and send a warning if the machine will be damaged.

Technicians can perform maintenance and repairs before the machine is totally damaged so that the production process will not be interrupted and the company will not experience a loss of time and costs due to sudden machine damage.

Internet of Things (IoT Operating system)

Unlike home computer devices, laptops or mobile devices such as smartphones, IoT devices require a special operating system that is lightweight and can run on small resources.

The operating system on an IoT device is often called an Embedded operating system or embedded software.

The type of operating system used in the embedded device type Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) is called RTOS because this operating system works in real-time, receives data, processes, and produces output in real-time.

Because of its easy RTOS on the smart TV, it receives signals decoding and displaying it on the screen continuously (real-time) along
with 8 popular IoT operating systems today.


RIOT is an operating system developed by the opensource community that began in 2008, RIOT can run on various platforms including embedded devices.

RIOT OS is also known for its efficiency in power usage and requires very minimal specifications.

Windows 10 For IoT

the latest version of the operating system for Microsoft's embedded devices is Windows 10 For IoT.

There are 3 types of 3 variants of Windows for embedded OS: the first is Windows 10 for IoT Mobile which supports ARM architecture.

Next is Windows 10 for IoT Core that can run on Rasberry Pi and inter Atom and the last is windows 10 for IoT enterprise.

Windows 10 for IoT is so new that it's still lagging behind for its support and framework support. but the operating system developer is very potential to develop smart house applications.

WindRiver VxWorks

Maybe WindRiver VxWorks becomes RTOS (Real-Time Operating System) which is widely used commercially today.

Because the development of embedded OS has developed very critical security when implementing IoT devices in large and vital projects.

This operating system is widely used in the medical, aviation, and industrial fields.

Google Brightness

Brillo is an embedded OS made by Google based on Android.

Brillo uses a special protocol for communication called Weave where embedded devices do not have to be installed on an Android-based operating system in order to communicate.

As long as IoT devices use the Weave protocol all devices can communicate with each other.

This is a big breakthrough between IoT devices and different vendors having compatibility problems in communicating.


ARM makes their own embedded OS which they call Mbed OS, this OS is only compatible with embedded devices that use the ARM architecture.

This OS is only designed with single traded not multi traded.

ARM considers this Os will be able to run on a very small embedded OS with very little power requirements as a breakthrough in the future, and in the end, all IoT devices will use this OS.

Embedded Apple iOS And OS X

when the IoT market began to bust and promised Apple to adopt the iOS platform to make IoT devices such as Apple TV, CarPlay, and Apple Watch.

In the future, Apple will use iOS and modify OS X so that it can be used on embedded devices with high efficiency.

Nucleus RTOS

Nucleus RTOS is an embedded OS developed by Mentor Graphics which claims that the software has been used for more than 3 billion devices.

Nucleus RTOS offers a power management framework that can optimize power usage on IoT devices.

Green Hills Integrity

Green Hills' Integrity is a commercial RTOS and is widely used in the aviation, defense, automotive, industrial, and medical industries.

The advantages of using the IoT Tool

there are many benefits and conveniences when a system in the real world uses an IoT device including:

Accuracy in Decision Making

The more information we get, the easier it is to determine the right actions on the basis of existing data.

With the help of computers and program algorithms we don't need to check the data and sort them one by one, let the machine do it according to the algorithm we want.

Besides being fast, it is also accurate.

Easy to Track

In an inventory system with the help of a computer, it will be very easy to check the availability, location, and quality of the goods making it easier for us to carry out management so that there are no cases of running out of goods because of neglect in checking if done manually.

Saving time

With the help of a computer system that has been pre-programmed to process certain information and take action according to what has been programmed, the process of analysis and decision making based on large data will be very fast.

It is inconceivable if this was done manually without the aid of a machine.


There is no doubt, the limited use of human power that results in the need for a lot of human labor to do heavy work.

With the help of machines whose capabilities can be regulated and can replace human work, humans do not need to do heavy and complicated things today, just by being a machine operator.

From this, it appears that the cost to pay employees is less because it has been replaced by a machine.

Disadvantages / Risks of using IoT Devices

Behind the ease and sophistication presented when using an IoT device, there are some risks that you need to know about

the risk of using Iot


We know that there is no standardization of the use of sensors such as the use of USB when a system with an IoT device is damaged then we have to buy at the same vendor to replace it.


Behind the convenience that is presented, there is an IoT module that is assembled in a complex way to receive and process information and the tool requires the expert heart to take care periodically to keep the system running.


All devices and computer programs are prone to hacking, recently a massive DDOS attack was allegedly originating from an IoT device that was hacked and turned into a botnet to carry out this attack.

So once again needed experts to secure the IoT device from Hacker attacks.


Internet of Things (IoT) is the idea of ​​making all the tools in the world have the ability to collect data independently and the data is sent to the server for analytical purposes.

The more data we get, the more accurate we are in making decisions.

IoT devices use small embeded devices to be portable and programmed to do specific things, for example collecting data and sending it to a server via the internet and LAN.

We have encountered IoT devices every day starting from CCTV, medical devices, sensors installed on the road, airport, mountain, sea, all of which send data to a remote server using internet / LAN / WiFi networks.
Aliif Arief
Aliif Arief web and app enthusiast

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